Kurt Schwitters, London 1944 (Source: Wikipedia)
Neglected for many years, the name of Kurt Schwitters has started cropping up all over the place. Tate Britain are due to hold a major retrospective between 30 January and 12 May next year of the work he produced during his limited time in Britain as a refugee from Nazi Germany. But his work has been quietly celebrated for many years at the Abbot Hall Gallery in Kendal, close to where he made his final home and created his last masterpiece.
Originally on the fringes of the German Dadaist movement, Scwitters invented the concept of Merz –
‘the combination, for artistic purposes of all conceivable materials’.
He used any materials that came to hand – paper, cardboard, scraps of print, bits of wood, string, cotton wool, bus tickets and anything else that came to hand. Schwitters considered them to be equal with paint. He incorporated these found objects and everyday materials in abstract collage, installation, poetry and performance.
The term Merz originated from a fragment of found text from the sentence Commerz Und Privatbank Schwitters used in his picture Das Merzbild.
Learning that he was wanted by the Gestapo for an “interview” in 1937 he fled to Norway but when the Nazis invaded in 1940 he had to flee again, this time to Britain. Initiallly he was interred as an “enemy alien” in Scotland and then the Isle of Man. He was released in November 1941, moving first to London and then, in 1945, settling in the Lake district.
Without any income he often had to sleep rough and tried to earn money by selling portraits and landscapes. However, when he received a grant from the New York Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) he started to create his last great work of art, the Mertzbarn near the tiny hamlet of Elterwater in the picturesque Langdale valley. However, his health was failing and he died in Kendal, on 8 January 1948, a few days after he’d been granted British citizenship. The wall of his Mertzbarn was removed and is now displayed in the Hatton Gallery in Newcastle upon Tyne.
Although he was unappreciated for many years the Abbot Hall Gallery in Kendal had the foresight to obtain a number of his works for their collection. They include some characteristic collages and a sculpture created using found objects. But the collection also includes some figurative works, portraits and landscapes, that he sold to make some money when he had no other source of income. We were able to see all of them during our recent visit to the gallery in a special exhibition shown in conjunction with a film – Throw them up and let them sing by Helen Petts, made in response to Schwitters’ life, which was commissioned for the Cultural Olympiad – the arts festival of the 2012 Olympic Games.
My favourite of the works from the collection was a small oil painting including found objects -“Flight”(1945). It’s only 43cm x 35.5cm but was quite striking .
The title of Petts’ film is a quote from Schwitters describing what he did with his ‘merz material’ when creating his collages.
“explores landscape, rhythm, texture, sound, improvisation and walking, using footage shot in locations that were a major inspiration to Schwitters: Norway, where he holidayed and first escaped to as a refugee from Nazi Germany and Loughrigg Fell, Rydal Terrace and the Merzbarn in the Lake District, where he spent the last few years of his life.”
Throw them up and let them sing can’t be viewed on line, but Helen has posted a video showing the Merzbarn wall.
Finally receiving greater recognition, as well as the Tate retrospective a campaign has been launched to create a memorial in Elterwater close to the Merzbarn.
A large selection of his art works can be viewed here.